Toxicity Evaluation for accumulation of nanoparticles in biological system

Prakhar Agarwal, Manisha Singh


Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth in the field of nanotechnology. The application of nanotechnology has risen and now has become a technical necessity in almost every technical field be it medical, therapeutic, cosmetics, agriculture, forensic, defence and many more still to come. Nanotechnology in pharmaceutical application typically involves encapsulation of any drug in “Nano” sized carrier ranging from metallic, polymeric, quantum dots, silicon based, polymeric micelles, liposomes and others in its configuration, which are prepared by various methods such as ionic gelation, solvent evaporation, emulsion polymerization, interfacial polymerisation, interfacial polycondenstaion etc. Polymeric substances have been employed for the synthesis of nanocapsules, nanotubules, dendrimers, nano emulsions, hydrogels and several other types. For the potential use in therapeutic interventions, nanoparticles need to cross various biological barriers, depending on the disease target, where they release their therapeutic (drug/ compound) molecule at the specific site of action. Although the drug carries out its activity, the nanoparticle carrier is still present and possess harmful or toxic effects as they accumulate in the body which is facilitated by their characteristic small size. Lungs, skin, GI tract, brain, blood all have been shown to have severely affected by nanoparticles. The toxic effect is on the basis on type of nanoparticles used. Inflammation, haemolysis, oxidative stress and many others are some typical consequences of nano particles. Our study focusses on other side of using nanotechnology that is their harmful effects on human body.


Nanotechnology, polymeric, therapeutic intervention, toxic effects.

Full Text:



C. Pinto Reis, R. Neufeld, A. Ribeiro, and F. Veiga, "Nanoencapsulation I. Methods for preparation of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles", Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 8-21, 2006.

O. Salata, "Journal search results - Cite This For Me", Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 3, 2004.

Y. Cao, R. Jin, J. Nam, C. Thaxton and C. Mirkin, "Raman Dye-Labeled Nanoparticle Probes for Proteins", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 48, pp. 14676-14677, 2003.

A Review on Latest Trend of Cosmetics-Cosmeceuticals Nikita Wanjari, *Jyotsna Waghmare Department of Oil, Oleo-chemicals and Surfactants Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg, Mumbai-400019, India.

L. Yildirimer, N. Thanh, M. Loizidou and A. Seifalian, "Toxicology and clinical potential of nanoparticles", Nano Today, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 585-607, 2011.

H. Shi, R. Magaye, V. Castranova and J. Zhao, "Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data", Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 15, 2013.

C. Lasagna-Reeves, D. Gonzalez-Romero, M. Barria, I. Olmedo, A. Clos, V. Sadagopa Ramanujam, A. Urayama, L. Vergara, M. Kogan and C. Soto, "Bioaccumulation and toxicity of gold nanoparticles after repeated administration in mice", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 393, no. 4, pp. 649-655, 2010.

A.Lohani, A. Verma, H. Joshi, N. Yadav and N. Karki, "Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals", ISRN Dermatology, vol. 2014, pp. 1-14, 2014.

M. Zoroddu, S. Medici, A. Ledda, V. Nurchi, J. Lachowicz and M. Peana, "Toxicity of Nanoparticles", Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 33, pp. 3837-3853, 2014.

S. Olivera, H. Muralidhara, K. Venkatesh, V. Guna, K. Gopalakrishna and Y. Kumar K., "Potential applications of cellulose and chitosan nanoparticles/composites in wastewater treatment: A review", Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 153, pp. 600-618, 2016.

D. Wang and Y. Chen, "Critical review of the influences of nanoparticles on biological wastewater treatment and sludge digestion", Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, pp. 1-13, 2015.

M. Rawat, D. Singh, S. Saraf and S. Saraf, "Nanocarriers: Promising Vehicle for Bioactive Drugs", Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1790-1798, 2006.

Duncan, "Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: Barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 363, no. 1, pp. 1-24, 2011.

E. Samuelsson, H. Shen, E. Blanco, M. Ferrari and J. Wolfram, "Contribution of Kupffer cells to liposome accumulation in the liver", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 158, pp. 356-362, 2017.

S. Barua and S. Mitragotri, "Challenges associated with penetration of nanoparticles across cell and tissue barriers: A review of current status and future prospects", Nano Today, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 223-243, 2014.

R. Jain, "Transport of molecules across tumor vasculature", CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 559-593, 1987.

R. Jain and T. Stylianopoulos, "Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors", Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 653-664, 2010.

P. Deshpande, E. Rao, B. Regmi, P. Nirojini, R. Vantipalli, A. Ahad and C. Chaitanya Lakshmi, "Clinical pharmacists: The major support to Indian healthcare system in near future", Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 161, 2015.

D. Begley, "Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system: the problems and the possibilities", Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 29-45, 2004.

N. Zaman, Y. Yang and J. Ying, "Stimuli-responsive polymers for the targeted delivery of paclitaxel to hepatocytes", Nano Today, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 9-14, 2010.

X. Gao, J. Qian, S. Zheng, Y. Changyi, J. Zhang, S. Ju, J. Zhu and C. Li, "Overcoming the Blood–Brain Barrier for Delivering Drugs into the Brain by Using Adenosine Receptor Nanoagonist", ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3678-3689, 2014.

C. Choi, C. Alabi, P. Webster and M. Davis, "Mechanism of active targeting in solid tumors with transferrin-containing gold nanoparticles", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 1235-1240, 2009.

Zhang, Z. (2006). Delivery of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Small Interfering RNA in Complex with Positively Charged Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Suppresses Tumor Growth. Clinical Cancer Research, 12(16), pp.4933-4939.

Sinha, N. and Yeow, J. (2005). Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications. IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, 4(2), pp.180-195.

Ji, H., Yang, Z., Jiang, W., Geng, C., Gong, M., Xiao, H., Wang, Z. and Cheng, L. (2008). Antiviral activity of nano carbon fullerene lipidosome against influenza virus in vitro. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences], 28(3), pp.243-246.

J. Lademann, H. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer, H. Barthelmes, H. Schaefer, G. Mueller and W. Sterry, "Penetration of Titanium Dioxide Microparticles in a Sunscreen Formulation into the Horny Layer and the Follicular Orifice", Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 247-256, 1999

De Jong, "Drug delivery and nanoparticles: Applications and hazards", International Journal of Nanomedicine, p. 133, 2008.

A. Nemmar, "Passage of Inhaled Particles Into the Blood Circulation in Humans", Circulation, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 411-414, 2002.

X. Li, L. Wang, Y. Fan, Q. Feng and F. Cui, "Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes", Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, pp. 1-19, 2012.

K. Ai, Y. Liu and L. Lu, "Hydrogen-Bonding Recognition-Induced Color Change of Gold Nanoparticles for Visual Detection of Melamine in Raw Milk and Infant Formula", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 27, pp. 9496-9497, 2009.


  • There are currently no refbacks.