Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Effect of Coupling Agent on Organoclay Dispersion in Polyethylene/Organoclay Nanocomposites for Packaging Industry

Haydar Zaman, Ruhul A. Khan


Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is one of the most widely used polymers in various fields, but due to the hydrophobic nature of LDPE, it is hard to prepare an LDPE/clay nanocomposite. In this article, an LDPE/organoclay nanocomposite, which can be used in the packaging industry, was prepared by melt-blending organoclay with a polymer matrix (LDPE) and compatibilizer, low molecular weight oxidized polyethylene. The influences of organoclay, and compatibilizer during melt mixing method on the morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire-retardant features of ternary nanocomposite specimens based on LDPE were investigated. Morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire-retardant features were examined and inveterate by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and combustible tests, respectively. TEM photomicrographs inveterate that the compatibilized had intercalated layers of organoclay. Maximum rise in basal spacing was observed for ternary nanocomposites with interlayer spacing of 37.3A˚ in LDPE/5 wt% C20A/15 wt% oxidized polyethylene nanocomposites. Static mechanical tests have shown that the addition of organoclay in LDPE has considerably enhanced tensile strength and tensile modulus with less elongation at break than base polymer LDPE. The addition of oxidized polythene to LDPE/organoclay increases the tensile properties of the nanocomposite. The enhancement for LDPE was 55% for tensile strength and 68% for tensile modulus. However, the addition of organoclay and compatibilizer to the PP matrix significantly improved the crystallization/melting behavior of the samples and the crystallinity of the nanocomposite improved with increasing compatibilizer content. Significant enhancements in fire retardant features have been identified for ternary nanocomposites.

Keywords : 

Low-density polyethylene, compatibilizer, organoclay, mechanical properties, fire retardant features

Full Text:



Alexandre, Michael, and Philippe Dubois. "Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials." Materials science and engineering: R: Reports

1-2 (2000): 1–63.

Zaman, Haydar U., and Ruhul A. Khan. "Compatibilizing Effect of Modified Polypropylene on the Properties of Polypropylene/Organically Modified Layered Silicate Nanocomposites."International Journal of Composite Materials and Matrices 7.1 (2021): 8–19.

Zaman, Haydar U., and Ruhul A. Khan. "Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene/Organo-Muscovite Clay Nanocomposites by Melt Extrusion." Advanced Journal of Science and Engineering 3.1 (2022): 23–34.

Bazmara, Maziyar, Mohammad Silani, and Iman Dayyani. "Effect of functionally-graded interphase on the elasto-plastic behavior of nylon-6/clay nanocomposites; a numerical study."Defence Technology 17.1 (2021): 177–184.

Zaman, Haydar, and Ruhul Amin Khan. "Effect of Compatibilizing Agents on Organoclay Dispersion of Polypropylene/Organoclay Nanocomposites." Progress in Applied Science and Technology 11.3 (2021): 9–14.

He, Wentao, et al. "Flame retardant polymeric nanocomposites through the combination of nanomaterials and conventional flame retardants." Progress in Materials Science 114 (2020): 100687.

Castro-Landinez, Juan Felipe, Felipe Salcedo-Galan, and Jorge Alberto Medina-Perilla. "Polypropylene/ethylene—and polar—monomer-based copolymers/montmorillonite nanocomposites: Morphology, mechanical properties, and oxygen permeability." Polymers 13.5 (2021): 705.

Singh, Vishwa Pratap, et al. "Polyethylene/sepiolite clay nanocomposites: effect of clay content, compatibilizer polarity, and molar mass on viscoelastic and dynamic mechanical properties."

Journal of Applied Polymer Science 134.33 (2017): 45197.

Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto, et al. "Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the physicochemical properties of biodegradable starch films." Materials Chemistry and Physics 239 (2020): 122027.

Lee, Y. H., et al. "Effects of clay dispersion on the foam morphology of LDPE/clay nanocomposites." Journal of applied polymer science 103.4 (2007): 2129–2134.

Depan, Dilip, William Chirdon, and Ahmed Khattab. "Morphological and chemical analysis of low-density polyethylene crystallized on carbon and clay nanofillers." Polymers 13.10 (2021): 1558.

Gill, Yasir Qayyum, Mo Song, and Umer Abid. "Permeation characterization and modelling of polyethylene/clay nanocomposites for packaging." Polymer Bulletin 77.7 (2020): 3749–3765.

Wysocki, Stanisław, et al. "Green Highly Clay-Filled Polyethylene Composites as Coating Materials for Cable Industry—A New Application Route of Non-Organophilised Natural Montmorillonites in Polymeric Materials." Polymers 12.6 (2020): 1399.

Kim, Youn Cheol, et al. "Effect of maleated polyethylene on the rheological properties of LLDPE/clay nanocomposites." Polymer journal 37.3 (2005): 206-213.

Zhang, Jinguo, and Charles A. Wilkie. "Preparation and flammability properties of polyethylene–clay nanocomposites." Polymer Degradation and Stability 80.1 (2003): 163–169.

Zaman, Haydar U., and Dalour Hossen Beg. "Influence of two novel compatibilizers on the properties of LDPE/organoclay nanocomposites." Journal of Polymer Engineering 34.1 (2014):


Lin, Ting An, et al. "Modified polypropylene/thermoplastic polyurethane blends with maleicanhydride grafted polypropylene: blending morphology and mechanical behaviors." Journal of

Polymer Research 27.2 (2020): 1–10.

Bakhtiari, Amir, et al. "An approach to the optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene/nitrile butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotube/polypropylene‐g‐maleic anhydride

nanocomposites using response surface methodology." Polymer Composites 41.6 (2020): 2330–2343.

Awad, Sameer A. "Mechanical and thermal characterisations of low-density polyethylene/nanoclay composites." Polymers and Polymer Composites 29.8 (2021): 1325–1332.

Kato, Makoto, Arimitsu Usuki, and Akane Okada. "Synthesis of polypropylene oligomer—clay intercalation compounds." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 66.9 (1997): 1781–1785.

Hasegawa, Naoki, et al. "Preparation and mechanical properties of polypropylene‐clay hybrids using a maleic anhydride‐modified polypropylene oligomer." Journal of Applied Polymer Science

1 (1998): 87–92.

Vaia, Richard A., and Emmanuel P. Giannelis. "Polymer melt intercalation in organicallymodified layered silicates: model predictions and experiment." Macromolecules 30.25 (1997):


Vaia, Richard A., and Emmanuel P. Giannelis. "Lattice model of polymer melt intercalation in organically-modified layered silicates." Macromolecules 30.25 (1997): 7990–7999.

Std, A.S.T.M. "Annual book of ASTM standards." (1989): 19103–118.

Alamo, R.G., et al. "Small angle neutron scattering investigations of melt miscibility and phase segregation in blends of linear and branched polyethylenes as a function of the branch content."

Macromolecules 30.3 (1997): 561–566.

Durmus, Ali, Ahmet Kasgoz, and Christopher W. Macosko. "Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/clay nanocomposites. Part I: Structural characterization and quantifying clay dispersion

by melt rheology." Polymer 48.15 (2007): 4492–4502.

Varghese, Siby, and J. Karger-Kocsis. "Natural rubber-based nanocomposites by latex compounding with layered silicates." Polymer 44.17 (2003): 4921–4927.

Coskunses, Fatma Isik, and Ulku Yilmazer. "Preparation and characterization of low-density polyethylene/ethylene methyl acrylate glycidyl methacrylate/organoclay nanocomposites."

Journal of applied polymer science 120.5 (2011): 3087–3097.

Zhang, Ming Qiu, Min Zhi Rong, and Klaus Friedrich. "Application of non-layered nanoparticles in polymer modification." Polymer Composites. Springer, Boston, MA, 2005. 25–44.

Rong, Min Zhi, et al. "Structure–property relationships of irradiation grafted nano-inorganic particle filled polypropylene composites." Polymer 42.1 (2001): 167–183.

Paul, Donald R., and Lioyd M. Robeson. "Polymer nanotechnology: nanocomposites." Polymer 49.15 (2008): 3187–3204



  • There are currently no refbacks.